Dongfang Electric commented on the selection of millions of kilowatts of nuclear power turbo-generator units. China Eastern Electric Corporation i succeeded to the selection of millions of kilowatt-class nuclear power plant turbo-generator units following the Ling Ao power station project.

1 Introduction The Guangdong Daya Bay 2,10001 Jia nuclear power plant is the first million kilowatt nuclear power plant in China. It uses a French nuclear reactor manufactured by the Farma Group and Alstom’s full-speed turbine generator set. It has been operating since 1994. Performance and economic benefits. The Lingao 2,1000 gastric nuclear power plant, which was constructed near the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station in 1995, is basically a replica of the Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. The steam turbine generator set still uses Alstom’s million kilowatt full-speed generator set. At present, Guangdong is actively preparing for the follow-up nuclear power project Ling Ao 21000 nuclear power stations and Guangda nuclear 6,1000 nuclear power stations, and has begun to increase the research efficiency of Lingao's full-speed nuclear turbine generator set and the use of half-speed turbogenerator sets. This article intends to briefly explain what kind of turbo-generators should be used in the next-generation million-kilowatt nuclear power plant from the perspective of the comprehensive analysis and comparison of the full-speed and half-speed units in the development trend of nuclear power turbines in foreign countries and the ease of localization. Suitable.

2 Development Trend of Nuclear Power Turbine Generator Units in Foreign Countries According to statistical data, the world’s early nuclear power units have smaller capacity and more full-speed units are used. The current nuclear power unit capacity is generally more than one million kilowatts, and more than half speed units are used.

Taiwan Nuclear Power's total capacity of turbo-generators reached 104,400 stomachs, of which the stand-alone capacity was 600, and the following four single-unit powers with 985 units were in the Yawan and Lingnao Nuclear Power Plants; the stand-alone capacity was over 1200 stomachs. So far Siemens has produced a total of 3 Taiwan Nuclear Power's total capacity of turbo-generators reached 34,144 stomachs, of which three were single-cylinder units with a capacity of 6001 or less, all of which were full-speed units; nine units with a single capacity between 600 and 99, and four units with full-speed units. , The half-speed unit of 5 units, the maximum full-speed unit is the lamp unit of the nuclear power station with the unit power of 1061 put into use in 1975 orders for use in 1988; the unit with a single capacity of more than 1200 total 19 units, all for the half-speed unit. From the perspective of the rapid development of Siemens thermal power plants and nuclear power plant units, the full-speed unit power of thermal power and nuclear power stagnated after reaching mega kilowatts in 1978, while the more powerful nuclear power half-speed units have been greatly developed. .

The development of nuclear-turbine-generator units of world-famous companies such as the United States Westinghouse Electric Company, Hitachi, Japan, and the 10-cubic company and Siemens is similar.

After the full-speed unit power reaches about 1 million kilowatts, it does not continue to increase, mainly due to material restrictions.

We know that the large Rongtong unit needs a large exhaust area to match with it, otherwise the efficiency of the turbine is low, and an effective way to increase the exhaust area is to use a longer last stage blade, which is to increase the number of low pressure cylinders. At present, the world is investing in the company's last-stage blades for the Daya Bay nuclear power plant and Lingao nuclear power plant's 945, turbine captain. The power of Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear turbines is in the range of 10,000 kilowatts, and the number of low-pressure cylinders is already three. If it is necessary to further increase the power to reach or exceed 1.2 million kW, at least four low-pressure cylinders are required. This will not only bring series problems to the stability of the shafting system of the unit, but also increase the cost of the turbine. Therefore, it is inevitable that more than one half-kilowatt nuclear power units in the world currently use half-speed generators. But this does not mean that large-capacity nuclear power full-speed machines are not safe or to the end of the world. In fact, many famous big companies in the world are actively developing longer last-stage blades to increase the capacity of full-speed units. The development of long blades for all-speed thermal power units has made great progress. For example, the company has adopted 1.36 for a small elbow company, and 1 long-stage blades have been completed for double-low pressure cylinder exhaust million kilowatts of thermal power units. Users are waiting for orders to be produced. . In a sense, the technical level of large-capacity full-speed turbines can better reflect the development level of steam turbines.

3 Possibility of improving the efficiency of the 985 Jia-speed unit in Ling'ao Nuclear Power Plant Ling-Ao's nuclear-turbine-generator unit 1 is a duplicate of the Daya Bay nuclear unit. It is the former single-engine-maximum nuclear-powered full-speed unit designed by GEC ALSlX3M, and its steam turbine consists of 1 double. The exhaust high-pressure cylinder and three standard double-row steam low-pressure cylinders are used. All rotors are complete forging rotors. The length of the final stage blades is 945, and the operating speed is 3000.

When the cooling water temperature is 33 feet, the unit's rated output power is 900, and the maximum continuous output power at this cooling water temperature is 928.9 divisions, which is 3.21 more than the rated output power; when the cooling water temperature is 23 average water temperatures of the Daya Bay power plant, The maximum continuous output power of the unit is 983.8 MW, leaving no output margin. D 3.1 The efficiency of the internal pressure in the cylinder and the low pressure cylinder The main method for improving the internal cylinder efficiency is to reduce the secondary flow loss of steam in the cylinder. The Lingao Nuclear Turbine High Pressure Cylinder adopts 5 moving blades. The outflow angle of the blades is very advanced and the secondary flow losses caused by the blades are relatively small. The internal efficiency of the low-pressure cylinder reaches 89.6 when the back pressure is 0.00750, which has reached or approached the internal efficiency of the low-pressure cylinder of the same-grade wooden motor unit.

For example, the internal efficiency of the Hitachi 600 thermal power unit with 33.5-inch final-stage blade low-pressure cylinder is 89.6 The internal efficiency of the 40-inch final-stage blade low-pressure cylinder is 91; the internal efficiency of the 600-kilogas fired electrical unit with a 40-inch blade low-pressure cylinder For 90.77, of course, if people are used, the newly developed rotor and stationary blades of company 1 will improve the efficiency of high-pressure cylinders and low-pressure cylinders, but the loss is unrealistic.

3.3 Back pressure The 0.0075 back pressure is the best back pressure for the unit to continue to reduce the back pressure to improve the efficiency is not mediated strain xlOPk condensing cooling water inlet water, from the above analysis we can see that the efficiency of Lingao units It is very high in the specific model of the full-speed unit. It can be seen from the good performance of the Daya Bay nuclear power plant that it is an outstanding generation of nuclear power at full speed. If funds are allowed, appropriate improvements can be made to improve efficiency, but the effect of the improvement is very limited.

4 Localization of Ling’ao million-kilowatt full-speed turbines Although Ling’s million-kilowatt full-speed nuclear-turbo-generators are replicas of Daya Bay’s nuclear-turbine generators, localization of some equipment or components has been achieved.

The main contents of localization of steam turbines include the manufacture of low-pressure inner and outer cylinders, the manufacture of low-pressure class 45 separators, the assembly of low-voltage modules, the assembly and testing of high-pressure cylinders for machining and surfacing, the fabrication and testing of high and low pressure valves, and the machining of bearing boxes. Assembly and experiment, the main will not increase much, it is impossible to reach 2, because of their rate, the main approach is to change the structure of the cylinder, such as the double high pressure cylinder to a single flow high and medium pressure cylinder, change the location of reheat steam into the cylinder, etc. . But this requires Datong to invest in many experiments and make major modifications to the original design. Whether this can be done depends on the comparison of comprehensive economic analysis of specific projects.

3.2 Exhaust loss The effective way to reduce exhaust loss is to use longer last-stage blades to increase the exhaust area. The 945 last stage blade is the longest last stage blade used by ALSTOM in its full-speed nuclear power turbine, and is now used in many units in the world and has a very successful operating performance. The last stage blade is very critical for the turbine to ask for the last stage blade. The development of the last-stage blades requires a large amount of capital, and the nuclear turbines designed by a large number of well-known large companies must be very conservative when using the new last-stage blades. For example, the Siemens company developed in the 1960s to operate in 1971 with a length of 1.32,1 without any change, and its 1000 1300 gas-grade nuclear power units all use the same last-stage blades. ALSTOM is no exception. After successfully developing the 945 last-stage blades for full-speed nuclear turbines and running well, the last-stage blades will be used on multiple units. Although the lengths of the last-stage blades currently used in thermal power plants have generally reached 41 inches, some have even reached 43 inches from 510,1. The newly developed thermal power plant with the last stage blade length of 1.36 and the thermal power unit The parameters of the low pressure cylinder and the parameters of the low pressure cylinder of the nuclear power unit are almost the same. However, the last stage blades of the thermal power unit cannot be easily used for nuclear power units because their design concepts are completely different. The design of nuclear power units requires more consideration of safety factors. Their design is much stricter and more conservative than the design of thermal power units. Therefore, it is currently desired to reduce the exhaust gas of LingAo units by using longer last-stage blades. aA tank oil cooler manufacturing, embedded parts manufacturing, piping system manufacturing, etc., the proportion of domestic production has reached 45; the main content of the domestic production of generators, including the No. 2 machine outside the unit seat and No. 12 machine light oil and auxiliary equipment and other equipment Manufacturing, localization ratio reached 15.

Since Lingao Nuclear Power Plant construction funds mainly come from international financial institutions, the localization rate of its equipment is greatly limited, and domestic manufacturing companies can actually achieve a much larger proportion of domestic production. After repeated discussions and studies with company experts of Ding 0, for the Lingao turbo-generator set, the rotor machining of the Dongfang Turbine Works will need to add 1 set for milling longitudinal-lobe-to-slotted-groove plate bearings without increasing or small investment. The manufacture of high- and low-pressure valve bearing vane assembly and other components or equipment can be manufactured without adding any equipment; Dongfang Electric Co., Ltd.'s domestic production ratio of generators can also reach 80 or more. In addition to the need to increase the rotor coil processing or to modify the milling hole equipment, The processing of the remaining parts or equipment is already in place.

In addition, according to the technology transfer agreement signed by Ling Ao Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. and Renal 15 101 Company, domestic companies can obtain the same design and manufacturing technology of Ling Ao Units. Therefore, Ling Ao Nuclear Turbine Generator Units are fully domesticated in China. Easier.

Comparison of 5 megawatts of half-speed steam turbines and full-speed steam turbines Semi-revolving engine recommended by the sinking company for the Ling-ao project is the 11000-type unit. This model is the 2nd-generation nuclear turbine of the Frenchman 0 company. It took 54 first generations operating in France. Heart of this piece; the valuable experience of the operation of the crew, from the 1,500 plus humanized 1500 units to remove a low-pressure cylinder improved.

The steam turbine adopts a single-flow high-medium-pressure combined cylinder and two double-flow low-pressure cylinders. The steam exits from the high-pressure cylinder and enters the steam-water separation reheater for reheating. The reheated steam enters the medium pressure cylinder for expansion, and then directly enters the low pressure. The cylinder is very different from the traditional nuclear turbine. 4 is the steam flow of the 6000 and Ling-Ao units. It can be seen that this structural difference; all rotors are welded, the last-stage blade length is 1430, the running speed is 150 when the back pressure is 0.0055 to 3 ft. The unit's rated output power is the comparison of the full-speed unit and the half-speed unit with a comparison of a 1汜7.21 Jia 1000 half-speed unit and a Lingao full-speed unit. 5.1 Half-speed generating units have the potential to increase output The output of the Yixin 1000 unit is at a back pressure of 0.0055 cu. and a corresponding ambient temperature of 23 eq. when compared with the lingnanao units. 7. According to information provided by the person 151 finance company, person 1 welcomes 6 The increase in output of the 1000 units was mainly 74.212, which was a 58-ton increase from the total steam extraction area of ​​Lingao 45.69; the exhaust steam speed was 2503, which was 17% lower than the Lingao full-speed engine, and the loss of the speed of the overspeed was greatly reduced, making the output relatively satisfactory. 3.5.

The back pressure of the 1000 unit was reduced from 0.0075 to 3,047 to make the output relatively high by 1.5. This 6 heart 000 type unit is improved by high pressure and medium pressure steam expansion and exhaust outlet, steam loss is reduced, so that the output is relatively increased 2.

Compared with the traditional twin-flow high pressure cylinder in Lingao, the secondary flow loss is reduced and the efficiency is improved. , In order to use; 1000 type unit adopts single-flow medium pressure cylinder, so that the steam enters the medium pressure cylinder and expands directly after the steam and water separation and reheater, until the steam pressure drops 3, 3 and then enters the low pressure cylinder instead of the traditional 3 Double-flow low-pressure cylinder expansion 5 also reduces the secondary flow loss of steam. The steam line coming out from the medium pressure cylinder has a high speed and a large secondary flow loss. However, the 36 1000 unit has only two low pressure cylinders, and the blades of the low pressure cylinder can make the steam obtain a good linear speed ratio and can reduce the 3 flow losses. . In addition, the People 1; Chemical 1000 unit uses a special extraction steam exhauster at the high pressure and medium pressure exhaust outlets to reduce the axial flow losses from the high pressure and intermediate pressure cylinders.

5.2 The adaptability of the half-speed unit with a wide range of 0.0075MPa is the best back pressure for Lingao units. Continued reduction of back pressure will not greatly help improve efficiency or increase output. Therefore, the annual average water temperature of Lingao full-speed unit is relatively higher than that of Daya Bay. The use of efficiency in other parts of the country will not be much improved. 6 is the heart, 136! The heat consumption correction curve can be seen from the fact that when the back pressure is reduced from 0.0055 MPa to 0.0050 MPa, the efficiency can be increased by 0.2, so that people can also use the 66 1000 type unit in colder areas. In fact, its thermal power output can reach 5, and the back pressure can be reduced to 3 spit 8, while the thermal power output of the Ling-Ao unit can only reach 2900 stomachs at most and the back pressure is not less than 7.5.

5.3 The volume of the half-speed unit The main parts of the Daling-Macau unit are the dimensions and weight.

5.4 It is more difficult to localize the half-speed unit. The technicians of Dongfang Electric and Dongdian and No. 1 Company have carried out extensive and deep research on the localization of the 1000-type unit. The result shows that the steam turbine will be properly added to the processing equipment. The ratio of localization to generators can also reach 80, but its investment is more than localized investment of full-speed generators.

5.5 The price of the half-speed unit is slightly higher than that of conventional islands. The price of the installation of the six-plus-1000 units is slightly higher. The reason for the low price increase is that the cylinders of the following two types of units are much larger than the cylinders of the Lingdingao units, but they are attached to the project of the Ling'ao Group. The 1000-unit high and medium pressure cylinders are the upper half of the upper half of the internal pressure cylinders. Rotor Dimensions Weight Low Pressure Inner Cylinder Upper Half Size Weight Low Pressure Inner Cylinder Lower Half Size Weight Low Pressure Outer Cylinder Upper Half Size Weight Low Pressure Rotor Dimensional Weight Total Length of Steam Turbine Generator Rotor Diameter 1.3 mm, Length 6 Team 10,1 Diameter About 2, Length 16 Milk ,24,1 The stator outer diameter of the generator is about 5 mm and the length is about 1 mm. The size of the 40,1 injection cylinder is the length, breadth and height of knowledge. The low-pressure cylinder of the Tianlingao unit is 3, while the low pressure cylinder of the 60-unit is Only two of them have a total length dimension of only 9,1. More civil engineering work is slightly increased. See the general layout of Unit 761000 and Lingao Group. Construction costs increase slightly.

2 The condenser back pressure of the Arabe Ue00 unit was reduced from 7.513 to 5.5. The cooling area of ​​the condenser was greatly increased. However, the number of condensers and auxiliary auxiliary engines and extraction systems were changed from 3 to 2, and the investment costs increased or decreased. .

by. However, the technical difficulty of the half-speed generator relative to the full-speed generator has not increased and the price is only slightly higher, which is not the decisive factor in the selection of the unit.

6 Conclusions Lingao full-speed nuclear turbo-generator is an outstanding generation of million-kilowatt-class full-speed machine, the efficiency has reached a very high level, localization is relatively easy, and has a good operating performance, average annual temperature in Guangdong, etc. Higher regional operations are suitable. However, it does not invest in larger funds for the development of longer last-stage blades and the redesign of the turbine's overall structure. The efficiency improvement is difficult to exceed 2. The efficiency is improved across all regions of the country, and the output power is easily extended to 1500 or even greater. Although the investment is higher, the overall investment will not increase much. Therefore, if a nuclear power station with millions of kilowatts is to be expanded in Lingao, it is a good choice to continue using the full-speed models of the Daya Bay and Ling Ao nuclear power plants. If a new multi-million kilowatt nuclear power plant is built in Guangdong or other regions, taking into account the future development of more powerful nuclear power plants and the construction of a national standard nuclear power plant, the use of a half-speed unit such as Type 661000 is appropriate.

4 Concluding remarks When developing the peak-elevation boiler of the China Subcritical Review 31, according to the requirement of the peak shaving technology proposed by the current situation in China, the natural circulation boiler and the control circulating boiler have the capability to meet in general, and a large number of facts at home and abroad are also satisfied. Prove this. Since the introduction of the company's 880 company 300 tore 6001 sub-critical control circulating boiler unit design and manufacturing technology in the 1980s, China has designed and manufactured more than 100 3001 knowledge boilers. As the subcritical natural circulation boiler is safe and can be used as a hemp system, it is simple and easy to operate and can be applied to peaking investment and low maintenance costs. It is suitable for China's national conditions and has been welcomed by the Chinese power market. For more than ten years, in the ordering of domestic 300 and sub-boiler boilers, the number of natural-cycle boiler ordering units has greatly increased from the number of control circulating boilers. The peak shaving is the requirement for the entire generator set, not only the host equipment, but also the auxiliary coordination of auxiliary equipment and thermal system thermal control. The generator set itself is a huge system. According to the requirements of the system engineering, the work of design, manufacture, installation and operation is carried out to form a coordinated whole. The peak of the thermal power plant is connected to page 85.

Lithium Tert-Butoxide Basic Information

Product Name: lithium tert-butoxide
CAS: 1907-33-1
MW: 80.05
EINECS: 217-611-5
Mol File: 1907-33-1.mol
Lithium tert-butoxide
Lithium tert-butoxide Chemical Properties
Boiling point: 68-70 °C
Density: 0.89 g/mL at 20 °C
Fp: âˆ’2 °F
Storage temp: Flammables area
Solubility: Soluble in toluene, hexane, tetrahydrofuran and methyl tert-butyl ether.
Form: Liquid
Color: Brown
Specific Gravity0.89
Sensitive: Moisture Sensitive

Active Metal Compound Series

Lithium tert-butoxid,Potassium tert-butoxide,Sodium tert-butoxide,Potassium methoxide,Sodium methoxide,Lithium methoxide

ShanDong YingLang Chemical Co.,LTD ,